Antibiotics are medicines that are used to reduce and treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics resistance takes place when bacteria change by taking these medicines. Not humans and animals, bacteria become antibiotic-resistant. These bacteria can infect humans and animals badly and the infection they get from this medicine may be harder to treat than the infection caused by non-resistance bacteria. Antibiotic resistance may lead to higher medical costs, increased mortality, and a long stay in hospitals. The world needs to change the way it prescribes and uses these antibiotics. Antibiotics will remain a major threat if new medicine or developed without changing behavior. Behavior changes must also involve actions to spread infections by hand washing, good food hygiene, and vaccination.
Problems of antibiotics resistance
Antibiotic resistance is rising in all parts of the world dangerously. New antibiotic mechanisms come up and spread globally that warn of our ability to treat common infectious diseases. There is a large list of growing infections such as tuberculosis, gonorrhea, pneumonia, blood poisoning, and foodborne diseases that are harder and sometimes impossible to treat because antibiotics are less effective. The disclosure and spread of resistance are made worse, where antibiotics can be bought without any prescription for human or animal uses. In many countries, antibiotics are over-prescribed by health workers and veterinarians without any special treatment guidelines. Antibiotics are also over-used by the public.
We are captioning for a post-antibiotic era, without urgent action, in which minor and common infections and injuries can once again kill.
Antibiotics resistance is rushed by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, as well as control and poor infection prevention. Some steps can be taken to reduce the impact and limit the spread of resistance.
To control and prevent the spread of antibiotics resistance individuals can only use antibiotics when prescribed by certified health professionals. If your health workers say you do not need them, never demand antibiotics personally. While using antibiotics, always follow the advice of your health worker. Individuals should never use or share leftover antibiotics. Control and prevent infection by hand-washing, avoiding close contact with sick people, food hygienically, and keeping vaccination up to date. Always choose foods prepared without the use of antibiotics for growth promotion and prevention of disease in healthy animals.
Policymakers can also prevent the use and spread of antibiotics resistance by strengthening policies and implementation of infection prevention. policymakers can also improve the observation of antibiotics resistance infections. They should promote and regulate the use and discard of quality medicine. Ensure a strong action plan to handle antibiotic resistance. Policymakers should have great information on the impact of antibiotic resistance.
Health professionals can also prevent infections by ensuring that your hands, environment, and instruments are safe. According to the guideline, only prescribe antibiotics when they are extremely needed. Always report the antibiotic-resistance infection to surveillance teams. Health professionals should always inform their patients about how to take antibiotics in the right way and the disadvantages of misusing antibiotics. Talk to your patients about infection prevention.
The agricultural sector can prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance by improving biosecurity on farms. They can control and prevent infection through improved hygiene and animal welfare. Always provide antibiotics to animals under veterinary supervision. Never use antibiotics for growth promotion in healthy animals. Use alternatives to antibiotics when available. To reduce the need for antibiotics always update vaccination of animals.
To control and prevent antibiotic resistance, the healthcare industry can invest and develop new antibiotics, diagnostics, vaccines, and other tools.
Some new antibiotics are still in development, but none of them are anticipated to be effective against the dangerous forms of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. Antibiotics resistance is a global problem that requires efforts from all nations and different sectors while giving ease and prevalence with which people travel.
When infections cannot be treated by the first-line antibiotics than more expensive medicines must be used. Longer illness and treatment in the hospital can be a costly and an economic burden on society and families. Antibiotics resistance deposit the procurement of advanced medicine at risk. Chemotherapy, surgeries, and organ transplantation such as cesarean become more dangerous for the prevention and treatment without effective antibiotics.
World health organization (WHO) response
The World Health Organization is highly handling antibiotics resistance as a high priority. In May 2015, the World Health Organization assembly endorsed a global action plan involving antibiotic resistance, on antimicrobial resistance the Global action plan aims to ensure the prevention and treatment of infectious disease with safe medicines.
The Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance has some objectives:
- Improve the understanding and awareness of antimicrobial resistance.
- Reduce the quantity of infection.
- Strengthen their research and observation.
- Enhance the use of antimicrobial medicine.
- Sustainable investment in antimicrobial resistance.
World Health Organization has been leading multiple enterprises to enterprise antimicrobial resistance:
World antimicrobial awareness week
Since 2015, it has been held annually. It is a WAAW global campaign that aims to give information on antimicrobial resistance worldwide. It encourages the efficient practice to avoid the further use of a spread of drug-resistance infection among the health workers, general public, and policymakers.
The Global Antimicrobial surveillance system
The World Health Organization’s supported system supports a global level standardized approach to the collection, sharing of data, and analysis related to antimicrobial resistance to notify decision-making, regional and national action.
Global antibiotic research and development partnership
A linkage initiative of the World Health Organization and Drugs for Neglected Disease initiative (DNDi), GARDP encourages research by a public and private partnership.