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A water filtration plant is a facility that uses the filtration process in combination with physical, biological, and chemical treatment to remove or reduce the concentration of particulate matter and undesirable chemical and biological contaminants including bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and parasites to produce clean and safe water for the purpose of drinking, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. Most plants of this type filter drinking water suitable for human consumption. However, other water sources can also be filtered and purified.

Groundwater is the most commonly filtered water at filtration plants that usually come from underground wells and artesian springs. It requires further filtering before being rendered fit for human consumption despite being naturally filtered by soil and rock layers. Along with that, seawater and rainwater can also be converted into drinking water through the water filtration process.

Municipal water supply in rural and urban areas of Pakistan is mostly contaminated. Due to this, the majority of people do not have access to safe and clean water leading to growing waterborne disease cases in our country. However, the government has started the initiative of installing filtration plants throughout the cities and rural dwellings for the general public. Most of the housing societies also have their own plants for residents.

water filtration plant
water filtration plant

Working Mechanism

All water filtration plants use the same steps of treatment and purification although some may vary slightly. Each country may have a different water filtration system though all have the same major steps that include pretreatment, pH adjustment, flocculation and Pretreatment involves pumping, screening, storing, and conditioning water. Next is the pH adjustment period where any off-balance pH levels of water are adjusted. This is followed by flocculation where chemicals such as polymer, iron, and aluminum hydroxide are added. The water body is then subjected to a sedimentation step where sediments settle at the bottom of a large tank and clear water is collected. Finally, water is filtered for the removal of any remaining sediments. All the above-mentioned steps take place inside a water filtration plant on a regular basis. Water is made fit for drinking because of these treatment plants.

Recent Advancements

The application of carbon nanotube-based membranes (CNMs) has become widespread in water filtration. This is due to their size reduction and transport selectivity ability through the water. Along with that, they allow water to pass simultaneously while blocking contaminants due to their exclusion capacity. Nanofibers and nano biocides also improve the quality of water filtration. Surface-altered nanofibers impede microorganisms that cause surface fouling in water.

Water filtration plant for drinking water
Water filtration plant for drinking water

Other than these, nanoporous graphene membranes, depending on pore size and applied pressure, can be considered ideal separation membranes for filtration at an efficiency ranging between 33-100%

Water Filtration Services by WCSP

Water Care Services Pakistan is known for its state-of-the-art water filtration plants that are fabricated according to the requirements of customers. Their capacity range from 250 LPH to 100 m³/hr. All the requirements of purified water supply are fulfilled as a result of which good quality drinking water in accordance with WHO standards is generated. All the plants are easy to operate and mount. They take up less space as they have a compact design

Ultrafiltration plants

Ultrafiltration plant (UF plant) is a membrane filtration technology that removes macromolecules, colloidal particles, suspended materials as well as microorganisms from the water supply. The membranes are made of specialized fibers that range from 0.1 to 0.005 μm in size. It runs on a low energy supply and can run on low pressure. No chemical additives are required as it is a total physical process. The maintenance cost is low. This technology has a wide range of applications in various industrial sectors such as the beverage industry, food industry, pharmaceutical and medical sector, and wastewater treatment and sanitation. No by-products are formed and guarantees 90-100% of pathogens.

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