Scientists are working rapidly and efficiently in searching for the vaccines to stop the COVID-19. Numerous effective vaccines that are verified and certified by governmental authorities are suggested from the initiative of the pandemic virus.
When vaccines are prepared then it applies to a small number of people to check their safety and to identify potential side effects and it is the 1st phase.
In the 2nd phase, vaccines are practiced on larger groups to their effectiveness and safety measures.
In the third phase and the final stage, the vaccines which are applied to thousands of people and proved effectual means they do not show any rare side effect on trial humans.
Then these vaccines of candidates are listed at various levels of clinical trials by the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION.
Many vaccines designed by different scientists around the world is based on the following terms:
The vaccines comprising pathogens, bacteria, or virus particles that are grown in artificial culture and when they are not capable of producing the disease are referred to as inactivated vaccines.
VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE
These are the underdevelopment vaccines and primarily consist of the non-replicating viral vectors. Once these vaccines are injected into the body it starts affecting the cells of the body and start inserting their genetic antigen into the cell or nuclei of the host.
PROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINE
In these protein-based vaccines, a specific and isolated protein of the pathogen is used as an antigen to the immune system without including viral particles.
Nucleic acid RNA is the essential component of RNA vaccines and these vaccines inscribe the antigen genes of the infectious agent. When these vaccines are administered to the patients, the immunity against the infectious agent is gained when RNA is translated protein antigen.
The ongoing vaccines are listed below:
BEIJING MINHA BIOTECHNOLOGY (CHINA)
It is a company of biomedicine and it is continuing for the last 15 years it proposed an inactivated vaccine.
The first phase trial of the inactivated vaccines started on 2 October; it was administered to 180 healthy people that have an age range above 18 years. This trial is performed in the city of China Jiangsu.
They proposed a viral vector vaccine.
On August 24 -2020, a biotech company REITHERA SRL allocated the clinical translation of genetic vaccines and GMP PRODUCTIONS. This Italian company has designed a COVID 19 vaccine referred to as the GRAD-COV2. And it was based on an adenovirus that infects gorillas. They have announced the first healthy and fit participant is dosed with a viral vector vaccine. They administered the 1st trials at the Lazaro Spallanzani national institute for infectious disease situated in Rome and at the GB ROSI UNIVERSITY hospital that is present in Verona.
They also suggested a viral vector protein.
From the beginning of 2020, VAXART will initiate working on a viral vector protein for the COVID 19. In October, they started their 1st phase trials. It is an oral vaccine using an adenovirus which is known as A D5 to transfer part of the COVID 19 into the subject body to activate an immune response.
CLOVER BIOPHARMACEUTICALS INC., GSK & DYNAVAX (AUSTRALIA)
They designed a protein subunit vaccine.
The study evaluates the protein-based COVID19 S- trimmer vaccines. The subordinate system of the Glaxo smith cline applied the S- trimmer vaccine in human trials. 150 healthy adults are administered this vaccine in phase 1 trials in Australia. Clover has retained US$ 3.5 million to produce and launch the 1st clinical trials in June from CEPI.at the end of 2020, phase 2 trials have been planned and organized.
It is also a protein-based vaccine proposed by this company.
VACCINE in Australia launched the 1st phase clinical trial in the month of July. These vaccines activate the immune system to fight against the virus. It is formed when viral proteins join with secondary proteins. It is also an approved and efficient vaccine and its phase 2 clinical trials start at the end of 2020.
MEDIGEN is a biotechnology corporation and suggested a protein subunit vaccine. The TAIWAN-based vaccine is prepared by MEDGEN, and it is the combination of spike proteins and the adjuvant (secondary) proteins from Dynavax. They started their 1st phase clinical trials this month.
Individuals Freedom ARMY (PLA) /WALWAX BIOTECH ACADEMY OF MILITARY Disciplines (CHINA)
They proposed an RNA vaccine. This vaccine has its 1st phase clinical trials on two groups of patients. 1st group patient’s age range from 18-59 years and the second group with 60 and older.